Ancient Kerma city, Sudan,
One of the worlds oldest civilizations
Kerma was the capital city of the Kingdom of Kerma, in present day Egypt and Sudan, an archaeological site as old as 5,000 years. ‘Kerma’ is also used to describe the early Sudanese kingdom, of which Kerma was capital. This was one of the earliest African civilizations, commanding an empire that c.1600 BCE rivalled Egypt - stretching from the First to Fourth Cataracts. It became a real Nubian state during the 3rd millennium BC. Kerma was about 435 miles (700 km) away from Aswan.
What’s clear is that Kerma’s civilization emerged out of an ancient pastoral culture that had flourished in that part of Sudan since at least 7000 B.C. when the first settlements were established. Nearby Kerma archaeologists have discovered one of the two oldest cemeteries ever found in Africa – dating back to 7500 B.C. – and the oldest evidence of cattle domestication ever found in Sudan or, indeed, in the Egyptian Nile Valley. Around 3000 BC a town grew up not far from the Neolithic dwellings place.